Most of us will have lower back pain in our lives (80–90% lifetime prevalence) and it accounts for 2–3% of ED visits (so quite a bit).
As with everything in EM, there are benign and serious causes and we need to differentiate between the two. The serious causes include diagnoses in the back and those in the abdomen or retroperitoneum.
- Benign: muscular and ligament strain, sciatica (posterolateral disk herniation) and spinal stenosis
- Serious back: cancer, spinal epidural abscess, vertebral osteomyelitis, infectious diskitis, spinal epidural hematoma and giant (central) disk hernation (cauda equina syndrome).
- Serious non-back: AAA, renal stones, renal infarct, tumor, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, PUD, cholecystitis, retroperitoneal hemorrhage, psoas abscess